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The use of gems and precious stones in decorating walls, etc. Sources of information regarding precious stones in Chinese literature. Gold, silver, amber. Gems probably came from the factories of Alexandria. Pearls, Textile fabrics. Chinese modern names for broadcloth and Russian cloth.

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Asbestos cloth. The Roman Orient was the seat of the principal cloth industries. Embroidered textures, gold embroideries. Textures of several materials silk, wool, linen, byssus. Chinese silk imported to be unravelled and re-woven. The watersheep. Storax su-ho a product of Syria.

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The henna plant. Alleged introduction of papyrus rolls from Rome : the paper offered to China is Annam produce. Realgar, orpiment, copper, gold and silver. Barter trade in Ceylon : the spirit or devil market. Analysis of records regarding Fu-lin. Fu-lin as the country of the nestorians. Old sound of the name Fu-lin. The name Fu-lin represents the sound Bethlehem.

The Jo-shui or weak water of chinese legend-writers. The king of Fu-lin, Po-to-li, a nestorian?


The capital of Fu-lin besieged by the Arabs. Fu-lin as a seldjuk province. Milikshah, the Seldjuk Sultan. The titles Sultan and Melek. Damask blades and saddlery. Fu-lin physicians : trepanning.

Chinese embassies alleged to have arrived in Rome. The Indian embassy under Constantine. The alleged arrival of Seres under Augustus. No official mission was sent from China to the west before Kan Ying. Linguistic results.


Only about 60 miles north of this port was the city of Petra, so called by Greek conquerors who translated one of its Aramaean names, Sela, i. The principal local name of the city, however, was not Petra, but Rekem or Rekam.

During the first two centuries A. The city fell under the Mahommedan empire, and from that time to the beginning of the present century was nearly lost from the memory of man. Unheeded in the desert, and for centuries forgotten, the stately ruins of the hill-encircled city and its chiselled rocks still remain an evidence that may not be gainsayed of the mighty traffic once passing through the marts of Petra, of the princely magnificence of her merchants, of the truth of history, and of the unerring certainty of prophetic denunciation.

Pliny and Strabo both describe the city in its unmistakable features. Athenodoras the Stoic visited it, and related with admiration to Strabo, his friend, the excellence of the government under a native prince, and the security with which Romans and other foreigners resided there. To this cause Diodorus Siculus attributes the superiority of the Nabathaeans over the other Bedouin tribes :. For many of the tribes follow the business of transporting to the Mediterranean, frankincense, myrrh, and other costly spices, which are transferred to them by the carriers from Arabia Felix?

Strabo also writes that the merchandise of the Arabian Gulf used to be transported from Leuke Kome on the Red Sea, to Petra ; thence to Rhinokolura Al Arish , a town upon the Mediterranean; and so to other ports. The Palmyrian road supplied the east of Syria, where the city of Bostra, the capital of Arabia Petraea under the Romans, the present Bosrah, was known as another centre of oriental trade.

It looks almost as if the Wei-shu I 5 referred to these routes in saying :. The larger amount 40, would very nearly correspond to the length of the passage in stadia ; but as the tradition of the text seems to be strongly in favour of 10, li, we have to interpret this expression as having a general sense like the latin sexcenti, i. Just as the Chinese annals contain records of alleged embassies from western monarchs which, on close examination, we had to declare to have been private missions, allusions to Chinese embassies to Rome may be found in Roman authors, which, if approached in the same critical spirit, may be shown never to have been sent by the monarch from whom they alleged to come.

Eusebius Vit.

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I, IV, c. They came from the shores of the eastern ocean ; a description which might be applied to the coast of China or Coromandel. They presented shining gems, and unknown animals. It appears that Chinese annals are as silent on this point as Roman records are on the various missions to China mentioned in Chinese historical works. The Chinese are, and have at all times been, so well at home in their own literature, that we may depend on this statement as a proof at least of no similar mission being mentioned in any recognised record as having gone further west previous to Kan Ying ; and this again implies that no Chinese has proceeded to the Far West in an official capacity, for such a fact would have been duly noted in the State Annals.

If any Chinese subject did at all penetrate to the west, previous to Kan Ying, he must have been a private traveller, and one who either never returned to China, or did so without calling public or official attention to his journey. If the Seres mentioned by Florus were actually Chinese they must have come by way of India, and with the Indian envoys ; they did certainly not come from the court of Han. This monarch asked him for an account of his country ; and the details of his reply were perhaps contained in the Wu-shih-wai-kuo-chuan, regarding which I regret to have obtained no information beyond the fact of its being quoted in certain cyclopedias.

So far the Chinese records. I am not aware of mention being made of the arrival of any such dwarfs in western authors. Ideler Biot J. Atlas David : Faune chinoise David : Journal de voyage. Mongolie David : Journal de voyage. Moupin David : Journal de voyage dans l'empire chinois. Les Chinois Gautier Th. Allez sur Liens. Chiner sur Chine ancienne. L'art chinois classique. Henri d'Ardenne de Tizac L'art chinois classique. Suite du calendrier 5. Site sous licence Creative Commons CC-by-nc-sa.

Sea-route to the coast of Pegu.

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Extraits Petra, the great emporium.