During the performance run the young soprano studied ballet privately and took courses in acting at the Max Reinhardt Academy, all with an eye toward the operatic stage.
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Engaged on the spot, Gueden made her debut in as Cherubino in Le nozze di Figaro. Numerous other roles came in the aftermath of her success and she remained in Zurich for two years. Family matters called her back to Vienna in and, finding herself unable to leave her home country, she accepted an engagement in Munich where she appeared first with conductor Clemens Krauss as Zerlina in Don Giovanni.
Given her intense dislike for the Nazi regimes in both Austria and Germany, Gueden elected to remain in Italy. When the Nazis occupied that country, she simply withdrew from performing for the duration of the war, seeking shelter first in Venice, then in a rural town near Milan.
Following the conclusion of hostilities, Gueden returned to Austria and was invited to the Salzburg Festival in where she debuted in the signature role of Zerlina. That same year, she was engaged by the Vienna Staatsoper where she remained a treasured artist until In , she sang at Covent Garden for the first time and, in , she began a relationship with the Metropolitan Opera which lasted for nine seasons and embraced more than performances in 13 roles.
For the Metropolitan, she created the role of Anne Truelove in Stravinsky 's The Rake's Progress in a production coming shortly after the work's Venice premiere.
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Allein, es handelt sich lediglich um ein sehr intimes kaltes Souper. Aktes verspricht:. Das Operetten-Idealbild des opulenten Reichtums hatte offenkundig erste Risse bekommen — wenn auch mit buffoneskem Augenzwinkern. Angesichts der k. War es wirklich noch so fremd und exotisch? Kultur war mehr denn je zum Politikum geworden, und es kann nicht wundernehmen, dass auch in diesem Zusammenhang Operetten eine Rolle spielten:.
Sein Gesicht ist interessant, rassig, dunkler Teint. Der Schleier spielt hier sowohl musikalisch als auch textlich eine zentrale Rolle. Zwar ging es im Wiener Kontext wohl nicht um Gesichtsschleier, doch war auch in Mitteleuropa die Rolle der Frau alles andere als eine gleichberechtigte. Abdruck mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Autors. Die Welt der Osmanen, die Osmanen in der Welt.
Wahrnehmungen, Begegnungen und Abgrenzungen. Aktes im Regiebuch Die Rose von Stambul. In Szene gesetzt von Oberregisseur Paul Guttmann.
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Wien, Theater an der Wien, , S. Bernhard Grun, Kulturgeschichte der Operette. Berlin , S. A Theatrical History. London , S. Wien , S.
Dezember , S. Juli , S. Juni September , zitiert nach Frey, Fall , S. Glamour, Stars und Showbusiness , Wien , S. The Arts, Entertainment, and Propaganda, , Cambridge u. Ein kulturhistorischer Essay , 2. Linhardt, Residenzstadt , S. Martin Baumeister, Kriegstheater. Essen , S. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive. It is clear that the productions in the West End and on Broadway of The Merry Widow marked a distinctive new phase in operetta reception.
The massive success of The Merry Widow opened up a flourishing market for operettas from Vienna and Berlin. Continental European operetta entered a marketplace dominated by musical comedy. The first major blow to the operetta market, especially in the UK, was the outbreak of the First World War.
After the war, many creators of operetta were eager to escape to the comfort of historical romances. In the first three decades of the twentieth century, many people were prepared to pay for operetta, and an assortment of theatres and ticket prices enabled a broad social mixture to do so. In addition to critical-aesthetic reception, theatrical productions were open to moral concerns.
The chapter ends with reflections on the reasons for the decline in productions on Broadway and in the West End post When it was being prepared for its first performance in Vienna, the manager of the Theater an der Wien, Wilhelm Karczag, exhibited little faith in its prospects. That is why it makes sense to name it as the foundation stone of the Silver Age of operetta.
There may have been stage works of the time that had a longer continuous run in one country or another, but Die lustige Witwe had a cosmopolitan appeal that reached across borders. The most successful stage work in the UK in the first half of the twentieth century was Chu Chin Chow , but nowhere else in the world did it achieve anywhere near the same number of performances as did the West End production.
After try-outs in several American cities, The Merry Widow opened at the New Amsterdam on Broadway on 21 October , where its reception was seen by critics as an indication that audience standards were rising, an opinion that gave comfort to American operetta composers such as Reginald De Koven and Victor Herbert.
Henry W. Savage, the manager of the New Amsterdam, granted permission for the parody, knowing that it would increase interest in his own production, which went on to enjoy a run of performances. The stage works of Paul Lincke, who is credited as the founder of Berlin operetta with his one-act Die Spree-amazone of , took time to travel. Other operettas — those of Victor Herbert excepted — were not doing well on Broadway following the success of The Merry Widow.
Regular but short runs of Gilbert and Sullivan took place during —13 at the Casino. William Boosey comments that when he first went into publishing in the s, French operetta was the dominant type, with Offenbach, Lecocq, Audran, and Planquette to the fore. A reason Paris was failing in the new operetta market was given by the American book and lyric writer Harry B. Between and , The disposable income of the middle and lower middle classes had increased in the late nineteenth century and changes in stage entertainment catered for the new audiences.
Symptomatic of that was the renaming of music halls as Palaces of Variety, with its suggestion of greater respectability and suitability for a family audience. Linked to new audience appetites, also, was the development of romantic musical comedy as a substitute for burlesque in the s. I regard the members on an audience as the real critics. It is no use defying them as so many managers I know have done. The West End and Broadway were both developing rapidly as centres of entertainment in the early twentieth century, helped by rising prosperity in the period before the First World War.
The audience attracted to operetta needs to be considered from two angles, the economic and the aesthetic — although nobody familiar with the work of Pierre Bourdieu will be persuaded that these two perspectives can be easily separated. The presence of royalty at an opening night, as for The Count of Luxembourg in , and the conducting of the opening night by the composer, further enhanced the glamour of the theatrical experience. Yet the presence of the King did not lend aristocratic status to operetta any more than it did to the Royal Variety Show, the first of which took place the following year.
Try-outs were common before West End or Broadway productions, so that changes could be made in response to the reactions of the first audiences. Shubert was, in fact, keen to turn the Boston Opera House into an operetta venue. This is an example of transcultural reception on the small scale, the cultural transfer from one region to another, rather than one country to another.
Basil Hood tended to adopt a nationalist tone when speaking of differences between Austrian and British audiences see Chapter 5 , but those differences are to a large extent merely another example of the same phenomenon. Operettas successful in the modern city of Berlin were more likely to cross borders easily. Like Der fidele Bauer , it was too firmly in the Volksoperette mould. The composer Edmund Eysler was a little too Viennese to export easily, though several productions of his operettas enjoyed modest success on Broadway, and one, The Blue Paradise Ein Tag im Paradies , had a long run at the Casino in It was, in fact, the only performance of an Eysler operetta in London.
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Straus thought he was the first to introduce an operetta with a sad ending, but it was not novel in London, because Gilbert and Sullivan had already done so in Yeomen of the Guard Sometimes, operettas did better in London and New York than in Vienna. The Broadway version was soon taken to London and featured in the lead roles Constance Drever, who could both sing and act, and ex-Gilbert and Sullivan stalwart C.
The Broadway production by Charles Frohman was given almost simultaneously with that on the West End, but in a new English-language version by George Grossmith. Sometimes an operetta differed in its Broadway and West End receptions. The Girl in the Train , Harry B.